The Unreasonable Efficiency of Black Holes

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Shared December 31, 2017

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This video is about how efficient various reactions are at converting mass to energy (as we know from the Einstein mass-energy equivalence of E=mc^2). Antimatter is very efficient but it is not naturally-occurring. Chemical reactions like fire or explosions are very inefficient. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion are better, but not amazing on an absolute scale. Non-rotating black holes (Schwarzschild) and rotating (Kerr) are by far the most efficient, due to their accretion disks and very small radius of their innermost stable circular orbits.




REFERENCES:
Periodic Videos Hydrogen Explosion in slow motion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOTge...

CIA World Factbook Norway Energy Consumption: https://web.archive.org/web/201201280...

Binding Energy: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binding...

Hydrogen molecular bonding: https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/chemistry...

Gibbs free energy of water formation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standar...

Party Balloon Size Chart: https://broadwaypartyrental.com/wp-co...

Mass Excess https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_ex...

Table of Mass Excesses: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/masses/mass.m...

Deuterium-Tritium Hydrogen Fusion Energy Released: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=...))

Hydrogen to Helium Fusion chain efficiency: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=...))

Uranium-235 fission efficiency: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=...))

Black Hole Accretion rates: http://www-astro.physics.ox.ac.uk/~ga...


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